All you need to know about Photovoltaic Systems
What is Photovoltaics and how they work
The history of the development of photovoltaic systems pv - Solar Photovoltaic System
The photovoltaic effect (pv Solar cell) is about converting solar energy into electricity. The photovoltaic effect was discovered in 1839 by Becquerel (Becquerel). The photovoltaic effect is, in summury, the absorption of light energy from the electrons of atoms of the modules and the escape of these electrons from their normal positions thus creating power.
Sunlight - solar energy is essentially small packets of energy called photons. The photons of sunlight - energy contain different amounts of energy depending on the wavelength of the solar energy spectrum. The blue or ultraviolet eg have more energy than red or infrared. So when photons impinge on a solar cell is essentially a Hmiagogos, more bounce, the more penetrating and more absorbed by the photovoltaic or solar. These latter photons are producing electricity (energy). These photons cause the electrons in the solar or photovoltaic cells to move to another location. The basic theory of electricity is the movement of electrons from positive to negative. In this simple principle of physics thus builds one of the most advanced generation technology today.
Characteristics of Photovoltaic Systems
The main characteristics of P/V systems that differentiate them from other forms of RES are:
- Direct production of electricity, even in very small scale, eg several tens of W or mW.
- It's easy. Small systems can be installed by users themselves.
- They can be installed in cities, embedded in buildings and do not aesthetically affect the environment.
- They can be combined with other energy sources (hybrid systems).
- They are scalable systems, which can be later expanded to meet the increasing users' needs, without any modification of the original system.
- They are quiet, non polluting, with no environmental impact.
- Maintenance requirements are virtually zero.
- They have a long life and reliability during operation. The guarantees given by manufacturers for their P/V generators are more than 25 years of proper operation.
- The user's energy independence is the biggest advantage of P/V systems. The cost of electricity produced by P/V systems is nowadays comparable with the cost of peak power as the power company charges its customers.
- Photovoltaic systems can contribute significantly to the so-called «Scattered Energy Production» (Distributed Power Generation), which is a new development model of modern energy production, transport and distribution of electricity. The diversification of energy production, provided by the P/V systems, combined with the considerable reduction of dependence on oil and the prevention of further pollution of the environment can stimulate economic development in the new energy landscape that is now coming in developed countries.
The advantages of Photovoltaic Systems
- zero pollution
- quiet operation
- reliability and long life (up to 30 years)
- independence from the power stations in remote areas
- expandable as needed
- minimal maintenance
Why turn to solar energy?
To cover at least two needs. The need for energy and the need to protect the environment. Every kilowatt hour of electricity sourced from the grid and is produced from fossil fuels, the atmosphere charged with at least one pound of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is, of course, the most important greenhouse gas that contributes to dangerous climate change. The shift to clean energy sources like solar, the only way to prevent climate change now threatening the planet. Furthermore, the use of solar energy means fewer emissions of other hazardous pollutants (such as carcinogenic particulates, nitrogen oxides, sulfur compounds, etc.). These pollutants cause serious damage to health and the environment.
The photovoltaic bring considerable benefits to the environment and society. Benefits for the consumer markets for energy and sustainable development.
Solar energy is a clean, inexhaustible, soft and renewable energy source. The solar radiation is not controlled by anyone and is an inexhaustible domestic energy resource, which provides independence, security and predictability of energy supply.
The solar panels are functional as well as offering scalability of power and storage capacity of the energy (or the network syssorreftes) thus negating the disadvantage of batch plants. Giving full control to the consumer, and direct access to the data generated and consumed energy, make him more careful in how they consume energy and contribute to the rational use and saving energy. The experience of Denmark as showed reduction of total electricity consumption from photovoltaic users, of 5-10%.
For companies producing electricity, there are distinct technical and commercial advantages to installing small power systems. The more power systems installed and connected to the electricity grid, the more are the benefits for companies such as improve the quality of electrical power, the voltage stability and reduce investment in new transmission lines.
The gradual increase of small generator can effectively meet the continuous increase in electricity demand, which otherwise would be covered with large investments in power plants. The production of electricity from small producers may also reduce the need for investment in new electricity transmission lines. The cost of a new transmission line is very high if we consider beyond the technology and issues related to the depletion of natural resources and changes in land use.
The several small producers of green electricity are a perfect solution for the future supply of electricity where the disputed security provision. The local electricity generation is being tested by costly energy losses experienced by the mains (losses, which in Greece is 12% on average). On the other hand, the maximum solar electricity production coincides with the daily peak demand (especially during summer months), thereby helping to normalize the peak load and reduce the overall cost of electricity, since the coverage of these peaks is very expensive . Photovoltaics, except clean energy, yet provide solicitation and reliability in a deregulated environment. In a highly competitive environment, businesses need electricity incentives to attract and retain customers. The clean energy programs can be attractive to a sizable number of consumers who are interested in general for the environment and especially climate change. Today consumers in liberalized energy markets simply do not buy the cheapest electricity, as there is now a matter of both quality and service. Regarding the quality of electricity, the issues are clear: the energy that comes from thermal power plants using fossil fuels and destroying the environment, and can come from a unit that does not pollute the environment? Electricity What should I buy? I at least to buy small quantities of clean energy to encourage renewable energy? These are issues that definitely smart energy companies. The company accepts that photovoltaics will attract customers, producers who use solar panels and then sell it to clean energy. In a deregulated market environment, clients such producers may be located anywhere.
Photovoltaics can be used as building materials allowing for innovative architectural designs, and available in many colors, sizes, shapes and can provide flexibility and plasticity in the form, and give differential permeability and the ability of light depending on the needs of design. Substituting other building materials help reduce total cost of construction (especially important in the case of solar facades for commercial buildings).
Finally, photovoltaics provide prestige to the user and improve the image of the firms choose. In the more developed markets (such as Japanese and German) photovoltaics is now a must for every new building applications.
Electricity Sale Prices
Interconnected (P/V parks – industrial roofs)
|Month / Year||Sale Price: cents/kWh
for power greater than 100kW
|Sale Price: cents/kWh
for power less than 100kW
|For every n year afetr 2012||1,3χμΟΤΣn-1||1,4χμΟΤΣn-1|
|Varnas Vasileios & Sia EE|
|Month / Year||Sale Price: cents/kWh for power up to 100kW|
|Varnas Vasileios & Sia EE|